1.Explorer David Livingstone has ------- reputation: some historians revile him as a proponent of imperialism, while others ------- him as a founder of African Nationalism.
(A) a substantial . . exalt
(B) a sketchy . . vilify
(C) an illustrious . . dismiss
(D) a dichotomous . . praise
(E) a pristine . . castigate
2.When, in 1864, a factory established by Alfred Nobel to manufacture nitroglycerin blew up, the scientist discovered that the explosive was as ------- as it was powerful, ------- to detonate without warning.
(A) dormant . . ready
(B) fickle . . unlikely
(C) volatile . . liable
(D) unprecedented . . intended
(E) inactive . . designed
3.Currently rising temperatures in the Arctic and Antarctic are ------- of a still warmer world that could result from an excess of atmospheric carbon dioxide produced by the burning of oil, gas, and coal.
4.Because she has a great need for ------- , she loathes the public appearances demanded of her as a leading literary figure.
1.The correct answer is D
Choice (D) is correct. The structure of the sentence suggests that Livingstone’s reputation is based on two different, even mutually exclusive, interpretations; in other words, these views of him are “dichotomous.” The second part of the sentence describes this dichotomy: some historians “revile” him, while others do the opposite, or “praise” him.
2.The correct answer is C
Choice (C) is correct. It makes sense to say that when his factory exploded, Nobel discovered how “volatile,” or unpredictable, nitroglycerin could be; in fact, it was “liable” to, or prone to, detonate unexpectedly.
3.The correct answer is B
A harbinger is a sign of something yet to come. Temperatures are presented as “harbingers” in this sentence because they show that “a still warmer world” might be coming.
4.The correct answer is B
The first part of the sentence describes a cause and the second part describes resulting behavior. The literary figure desires “privacy” and so she finds public appearances loathsome.