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托福必备基本语法详解之动名词

语法的学习是备考托福考试的基础,只有掌握了语法,才能在托福考试中取得好成绩。以下就是100留学为大家带来的托福必备基本语法详解之动名词,希望对各位的备考有所帮助:


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Part A

Gerunds: Introduction

1.Playing tennis is fun.

2.We enjoy playing tennis.

3.He’s excited about playing tennis.


Important notes

Comparethe uses of the -ing form of verbs:

  1. Walking is a good exercise.

  2. Bob and Ann are playing tennis.

  3. I heard some surprising news.


语法要点

动名词简介

1. 动名词顾名思义是由动词变来的名词,其词形为名词,可以作为一个句子的主语。Playing tennis作为动名词词组,是该句的主语。

2. 作为名词性质的动名词,还可以作为某些特定动词的宾语,直接跟在这些动词之后。比如这里的enjoy, 经常的搭配就是enjoy doing something.

3. 动名词的第三种用法是作为介词的宾语,而介词往往是和动词、形容词连在一起,或者是介词词组,同样的playing tennis在这里是about的宾语。

重要备注

三句话中,虽然都是动词的-ing形式,但只有第一句中的walking是动名词(作主语);第二句中的playing是现在分词,构成该句现在进行时的一部分;第三句中的surprising也是现在分词,是形容词的词形,修饰后面的名词news.



Part B

As objects ofprepositions

1.We talked about going to Canada for our vacation.

2.Sue is in charge of organizing the meeting.

3.I’m interested in learning more about your work.

4.I’m used/accustomed to sleeping with the window open.

5.I look forward to going home next month.

6.They object to changing their plans at this late date.

7.We talked about not going to the meeting, but finally decided we shouldgo.


语法要点

动名词作为介词的宾语

1-3 动名词可以经常作为介词的宾语,除了这里的about, of, in以外,还有from, to, with, without, between,by, against, through, like等等。

4-6 这三句话中的to比较容易引起用法错误,因为它们不是动词不定式的to, 而是介词to, 因此后面不跟动词原形,而必须跟上动名词。

7 在动名词的否定式中,我们把not放在动名词之前,介词之后,构成了:介词+ not + doing的语法结构。



Part C

Common combinations 1

1.about

  • beexcited about doing it

  • beworried about doing it


2.about/of

  • complain about/ofdoing it

  • dream about/ofdoing it

  • talk about/ofdoing it

  • think about/ofdoing it


3.for

  • apologizefor doing it

  • blame(someone) for doing it

  • forgive(someone) for doing it

  • have anexcuse for doing it

  • have areason for doing it

  • beresponsible for doing it

  • thank(someone) for doing it


4.from

  • keep(someone) from doing it

  • prevent(someone) from doing it

  • prohibit(someone) from doing it

  • stop(someone) from doing it


语法要点

1.Excited, worried都是描绘人的情感或情绪,类似还有anxious, frustrated, 也跟介词about. disappointed可跟atabout.

2.这些动词后面跟aboutof没有意思差别,只是使用者的习惯问题。但有些动词搭配,比如result in(导致)和result from(由导致)的意思就差别很大。

3.这组动词中,根据其具体含义,有些直接跟介词for, 有些要跟上一个名词或代词宾语,再跟介词for.

4.这四个动词的意思非常接近,都是“阻碍、阻止”,因此它们的用法也是一样的,都有宾语,然后跟上介词from.



Common combinations 2

5. in

  • believe indoing it

  • beinterested in doing it

  • participatein doing it

  • succeed indoing it


6. of

  • beaccused of doing it

  • becapable of doing it

  • for thepurpose of doing it

  • be guiltyof doing it

  • instead ofdoing it

  • takeadvantage of doing it

  • be tired ofdoing it


7. on

  • insist ondoing it

  • focus ondoing it

  • concentrateon doing it

  • congratulate(someone) on doing it


8. to

  • be used todoing it

  • beaccustomed to doing it

  • inaddition to doing it

  • becommitted to doing it

  • bedevoted to doing it

  • lookforward to doing it

  • object todoing it

  • beopposed to doing it


语法要点

5.随着前面动词或形容词的不同,后面的介词有时会发生变化,比如:be interested in = be fascinatedabout = be keen on, 都是不同的介词,但意思很接近。

6.这里的for the purpose ofinstead of是介词词组;而be capable of = be able to, 区别在于前者跟动名词,后者跟动词原形。

7.总体来说,用on的搭配不多,其中focus = concentrate.

8.这些使用介词to的词组要特别记住,因为它们和动词不定式的to有本质区别,后面跟的结构也完全不同。其中be used to = be accustomed to;object to = be opposed to; be devoted to = be dedicated to.



以上就是100留学为大家带来的托福必备基本语法详解之动名词。更多托福备考内容,请继续关注100留学。


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