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首页 > 攻略库 > 考试攻略 > 托福 TPO写作范例:查科峡谷的巨屋

TPO写作范例:查科峡谷的巨屋

副标题#e#

下面附上TPO模考的综合写作解析范例“查科峡谷的巨屋”,包括阅读部分的解析和听力笔记的要点,希望大家认真分析,按这些要点进行写作训练。


托福阅读材料:

As early as the twelfth century A.D., the settlements of Chaco Canyon in New Mexico in the American Southwest were notable for their “great houses,” massive stone buildings that contain hundreds of rooms and often stand three or four stories high. Archaeologists have been trying to determine how the buildings were used. While there is still no universally agreed upon explanation, there are three competing theories.

早在12世纪,美国西南部墨西哥地区查科峡谷的居民就以他们的“巨屋”而闻名。这种石质材料建成的“巨屋”包好有数百个房间,而且通常有三到四层高。很多考古学家都试图解释这些建筑的用途。尽管业界尚未达成一致,但现在有三个比较有竞争力的理论。


One theory holds that the Chaco structures were purely residential, with each housing hundreds of people. Supporters of this theory have interpreted Chaco great houses as earlier versions of the architecture seen in more recent Southwest societies. In particular, the Chaco houses appear strikingly similar to the large, well-known “apartment buildings” at Taos, New Mexico, in which many people have been living for centuries.

一个理论认为这些巨屋是单纯用来居住的,每个可以容纳数百人。持有这种理论的人解释说查科巨屋同时间较近的一些西南族群早期建筑的雏形。尤其值得一提的是,查科的这些建筑同新墨西哥陶斯镇着名的“寓所式建筑”非常相似。这些寓所式建筑供很多人居住了数个世纪。


A second theory contends that the Chaco structures were used to store food supplies. One of the main crops of the Chaco people was grain maize, which could be stored for long periods of time without spoiling and could serve as long-lasting supply of food. The supplies of maize had to be stored somewhere, and the size of the great houses would make them very suitable for the purpose.

第二个理论认为查科建筑是用来储存食物的。查科人的主食之一是玉米。玉米可以不宜变质,可长期储存,因此可以作为长期的食物来源。这些玉米一定是要储存在某个地方的。而巨屋的规模非常适合作为储存地。


A third theory proposes that houses were used as ceremonial centers. Close to one house, called Pueblo Alto, archaeologists identified an enormous mound formed by a pile of old material. Excavations of the mound revealed deposits containing a surprisingly large number of broken pots. This finding has been interpreted as evidence that people gathered at Pueblo Alto for special ceremonies. At the ceremonies, they ate festive meals and then discarded the pots in which the meals had been prepared or served. Such ceremonies have been documented for other Native American cultures.

第三个理论认为这些房屋是用来做祭司中心的。离一个巨屋不远的地方有个阿尔托村庄,考古学家在那里发现了一个由古代材料堆积成的山包。对这个山包挖掘后发现了大量破碎罐子。这个发现佐证了人们聚集到巨屋是为了某种祭祀。在祭祀中他们使用节日佳肴,然后把做饭和盛食物的器皿抛弃。而这样的祭祀活动在其他美洲土着文化中有所记载。



#p#副标题#e#

阅读部分需要提取的观点是:

这篇文章从结构和内容上看,都比较和谐。但是,考古学的内容可能比较陌生,但是,更多是心理战的成分。

- Main point: 查科峡谷巨屋的用途

- Sub point 1:居住

- Sub point 2:储存玉米

- Sub point 3:祭祀


在听力部分,我们可以预测到的就是这三个理论都不成立,那么究竟是什么原因不成立呢?我们来听听:


Unfortunately none of the arguments about what the Chaco great houses were used for is convincing.

很遗憾,关于查科峡谷巨屋用途的三个理论,都不具有说服力。


First, sure, from the outside, the great houses look like later and Native American apartment buildings. But the inside of the great houses casts serious doubt on the idea that many people lived there. I’ll explain. If hundreds of people were living in the great houses, then there would have to be many fireplaces, where each family did its daily cooking, but there are very few fireplaces. In one of the largest great houses, there were fireplaces for only around ten families. Yet there were enough rooms in the great house for more than a hundred families, so the primary function of the houses couldn’t have been residential.

首先,当然从外部卡莱,这些巨屋同之后出现的美洲土着居住建筑很相似。但是巨屋的内部构造却反驳着居住说观点。我来解释一下。如果真有数百人居住与此,那么一定有很多灶火坑以便每家都可以用来做饭。但事实上巨屋里只有很少很少的灶火坑。在其中最大的一个巨屋里,存在的灶火坑只够十家人使用。然而,存在的空间却可以供一百家人居住。所以,巨屋的主要功能不可能是居住。


Second, the idea that the great houses were used to store grain maize is unsupported by evidence. It may sound plausible that large empty rooms were used for storage, but excavations of the great houses have not uncovered many traces of maize or maize containers. If the great houses were used for storage, why isn’t there more spilled maize on the floor? Why aren’t there more remains of big containers?

第二,证据也不支持巨屋用来储存玉米的说法。巨大的空屋子用来储存物品,这样的说法听起来挺合理的。但是对巨屋挖掘后却没有发现太多的玉米以及容器的痕迹。如果巨屋真的是用来储存的,为什么没有在地上发现更多的变质的玉米呢?为什么没有更多大号容器的痕迹呢?


Third, the idea that the great houses were ceremonial centers isn’t well supported either. You know that mound at Pueblo Alto? It contains lots of other materials besides broken pots, stuff you wouldn’t expect from ceremonies. For example, there are large quantities of building materials, sands, stones, even construction tools. This suggests that the mound is just a trash heap of construction material, stuff that was thrown away or not used up when a house was being built. The pots in the pile could be regular trash too, leftover from the meals of the construction workers. So the Pueblo Alto mound is not good evidence that the great houses were used for special ceremonies.

第三,祭祀中心的说法同样也站不住脚。大家知道阿尔托村庄吗?在那里,除了破碎罐子之外还有很多发现,这这些东西是不会出现在祭祀中的。比如,有很多建筑材料、沙子、石头还有建筑工具。这说明这个山包知识一个建筑材料垃圾堆,都是一些用后抛弃或者在建筑过程中没有用完的材料。这些罐子也是属于垃圾,是建筑工人吃饭的容器。所以,阿尔托村庄的这个山包不能作为证据支持祭祀说。


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听力笔记内容:

Main point: none, convincing

Sub point one: fireplaces, ten families, a hundred families

Sub point two: not, maize, containers

Sub point three: would not for ceremonies, trash, meals

笔记格式

阅读主观点区

听力主观点区

阅读分论点一

听力分论点一

逻辑链

细节

阅读分论点二

听力分论点二

逻辑链

细节

阅读分论点三

听力分论点三

逻辑链

细节


这些词都听到了吗,都记下来了吗?如果都听到了,把他们带回到之前阅读部分总结的逻辑链,就可以告诉ETS是如何反驳的了,这样就能完成ETS要求的要体现阅读和听力部分的关系了。


注意:

1、在开始听前要画好表格,这样写出来的不会乱,要不笔记就是一坨坨

2、阅读时候要做好笔记,记住,一定要用词而不是句子记笔记。用句子是非常不好的习惯,很耽误时间,如果不会误解的话,半个单词也好。同时也不要因为写作文的时候可以看到原文,因为原文很多时候是帮助听力的。比如之前伦勃朗的以事实论证的,以及这篇用推理论证呢的,都能很大程度上帮助听力部分的理解。

3、注意要记下概念性或人名类生词,这些词不知道具体意思没有关系,但是听力部分如果听到了,不知道是指哪里就不好了。所以这个要记全词。

4、一定要记笔记,不要以为自己听懂的就不用记。综合写作没有题目提醒你,细节又显得十分重要,而且就算记忆再好,写上十分钟也就忘得差不多了,而十分钟你第二点还没写完呢。


总之,在托福综合写作的备考过程中,一定要吃透阅读材料,认真记好听力笔记,注意阅读和听力中的观点差异,这样才能在写作中做全面分析,获得高分。


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